It is a science that examines the structure of ships (space vehicles) launched into space, their equipping for various purposes, their launch, the path they will follow in space, and the effect of flight on humans and other living things. The shapes of spacecraft can be spherical, cone, cylindrical, bullet-shaped or complex like spider, depending on the purpose and time of use.

These vehicles, which are launched from the launch bases at the ends of giant staged missiles, contain various devices and necessary equipment for spacemen. The outer part is covered with a heat-proof insulation material. On return to Earth, friction with the atmosphere turns the outer walls incandescent. Insulation is necessary so that this high temperature does not affect the people inside the vehicle.

Communication from the vehicle to the outside is provided by special windows and periscopes. Missiles and parachutes that provide braking when returning to the atmosphere, command devices, special seats where astronauts sit, cameras that send the astronaut's position to the world, radio systems that provide communication, etc. form the other main parts of spaceships. A map in front of the astronaut shows him where on earth he is. Steering missiles can be commanded both by the astronaut and by the ground station.

The main thing to do to launch the spaceship is to defeat the gravitational force. This is achieved by giant missiles powered by rocket engines. The spaceship is placed at the tip of these engines. Although the speed is around 100 kilometers per hour at the time of the first ignition, the speed must exceed 25,000 kilometers per hour to be placed in an orbit around the earth. Again, in the interstellar space outside the world, ships to be sent towards a target must reach 40,000 kilometers in speed in order to escape from gravity.

As the vehicle rises, the effect of gravity decreases. It falls to one twentieth of the earth's gravity around 100,000 km. In order to increase the speed of the vehicle as it rises, the missile formed by the rocket engines is made in several stages (mostly three stages). The first stage is fired first. When the fuel runs out, this step is taken and the vehicle becomes lighter. Then the other stages come into play in turn.

In order for the vehicle to consume less fuel and be cheap, it must reach the desired speed very quickly. However, this speed increase (acceleration) is limited so that it does not damage the vehicles inside the vehicle and the astronauts in manned vehicles. For example, the acceleration that a human can withstand is 5 or 6 times the acceleration of gravity. At an acceleration of seven times gravity, the specific gravity of blood is approximately the specific gravity of iron. This is unbearable for the human organism. In order to be protected from harm, the astronaut is placed on the back of the chair and dressed in special clothes. Sudden accelerations are also an important factor affecting human physiology.

Another problem encountered in terms of human physiology is nutrition and respiration. In order not to increase the weight, the foods and necessities to be taken are calculated and specially protected. Necessary oxygen for respiration is provided by tubes for now. It is not yet possible to make the carbon dioxide excreted from the body reusable as oxygen by utilizing solar energy. In addition to these, meteorites and radiation that may hit the vehicle also pose a problem. As a result, many problems await space medicine, which was developed to study various space conditions that affect human physiology.

The paths that spacecraft will follow in order to launch from the ground, to orbit the earth, to escape from gravity, to go towards the planets and back to the earth are calculated by computers in advance. As the vehicle travels through space, it cannot find a fixed reference point as it travels, as the other planets are also in motion and their states change, and the vehicle is subjected to different gravitational forces. For this, gyroscopic direction finders, which do not need any external reference points, are used only by the effect of inertia.

The signals coming from the gyroscope are evaluated on the computer and the necessary corrections are made in the direction by controlling the small rocket engines. Navigation in unmanned vehicles is done by radio signals like other communication processes. As the vehicle returns to the earth, it must enter the atmosphere at an angle of 5-7° with respect to the earth's horizon plane. If it goes below this angle, the vehicle can leave the atmosphere and escape into space again. If entered at a greater angle from this angle, frictional heat and gravity can damage the vehicle and the astronaut.

The Americans land their spaceships at sea, and the Russians in Siberia. They are rescued from the sea with helicopters and ships. Some vehicles, on the other hand, are caught and lowered by plane in the air. The ability of two spacecraft to come together and dock in space is one of the most important achievements of the space age. Docking is essential for space labs that can be set up in space. Many couplings have been made so far.

In fact, space visits were made between American astronauts and Russian cosmonauts, thanks to the docking between American spacecraft and Russian vehicles. In the 21st century, space cities in which thousands of people will live, space colonies will be established on the Moon and Mars, and the exploration of interstellar space by going out of the solar system will no longer be a dream. Information about space that reduces our current knowledge to nothing will be obtained.